@RueNel answered your first question.
Check out the Elements - New section in our Knowledge Base.
No, but this could happen if you're in a web host that has built-in caching like Pantheon.io. Hosts differ in their caching setup so this does not happen in other hosts. You could also try saving as draft.
There are bugs. But not everything is caused by X and Cornerstone. That is why we have an article on best practices in updating your theme and plugins. That is true for every WordPress setup using a feature rich theme and plugins.
If you're in the HTML mode, the HTML code is minified. That has performance benefit to it and added to that, you have more control as you can add a class to your text for CSS targeting if you know CSS.
If you don't want to see the code version of your Rich Text, simply switch to Rich Text mode.
The text box has already been expanded in the latest version of Cornerstone. You can see that in action in this video. Please also ensure everything is up to date according to our version compatibility list.