It seems that you need to learn more about WordPress and our theme to be able to carry out the stuff that you want. Honestly, I am now overwhelmed with the number of questions you asked and it will be a mess to answer all of them and then follow up with each one.
I suggest that we separate the questions. Let's stick with the original problem that you had. You can open up new threads for the other questions.
You have two choices to have a homepage:
1) Having the posts listed.
2) Having a page act as a homepage
You chose the item 1 from Settings > Reading. That is ok and it will show all the posts, it is the WordPress way. The 10 item count that you set is to determine how many posts to show in one page. If you choose 3 for example, you will have three posts inside each page and the number of pages will grow as it will need to show all the posts.
If you do not want to list all the posts, then please go to Pages > Add New and add a new page. Then go to Settings > Reading and set the homepage to the page that you created.
You can use the Cornerstone Page Builder for pages that you create from Pages > Add New menu.
Now regarding the Gallery post type and the way it will show in the posts listing page. Please read this article to know how to set them.
In general, I suggest that you bookmark this page to see a list of our docs which will help you get started.