That should be enough since all requests are rewritten and forwarded to site's base index.php regardless of URL format. But I'm not sure how Windows forward those requests, I had bad experiences when it comes to Windows server too.
Looks like the redirect is permanent to your host environment, even by disabling almost all plugin, it still redirects to non-existing page. I recommend cloning your site into the different environment (linux) and compare them to see what's different.
Been trying this without any success in finding the cause, I know there were some issues with WPML and the builder in some cases, but it should work once you disable them.